When galaxies collide, stars seldom crash into each other because they are still separated by enormous distances. But as this Hubble Space Telescope view of NGC 3256 shows, gas and dust in colliding galaxies can come together with spectacular consequences, triggering the formation of vast numbers of new stars and clusters. NGC 3256, located about 100 million light-years from Earth in the constellation of Vela, is the result of the collision of two Milky Way-size galaxies that began about 500 million years ago. It is now an especially luminous starburst galaxy oriented face-on to Earth and showing two distinct nuclei, one of them shrouded by gas and dust, surrounded by more than 1,000 bright star clusters embedded in crisscrossing dust lanes and a large disk of molecular gas. The two galaxies merging in NGC 3256 had similar masses and in a few hundred million years, astronomers say, the two cores will complete the merger to produce a single large elliptical galaxy.
By pushing the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to its limits, astronomers have shattered the cosmic distance record by measuring the distance to the most remote galaxy ever seen in the universe. The galaxy, named GN-z11, has a redshift of 11.1, which corresponds to 400 million years after the Big Bang when the universe was only three percent of its current age.