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Young pulsar hands
out radiation

...A very young and powerful pulsar, less than 20 kilometres wide, has carved out a beautiful X-ray nebula in the shape of a hand that reaches out across a distance of 150 light years...

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Hubble finds hidden exoplanet in archival data

...A powerful image processing technique may allow astronomers to seek out exoplanets that could be lurking in over a decade's worth of Hubble Space Telescope data...

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Integral dissects bright gamma-ray burst

...Integral has captured one the brightest gamma-ray bursts ever seen, allowing astronomers to probe the mechanics of the initial stages of such powerful stellar explosions...

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STS-120 day 2 highlights

Flight Day 2 of Discovery's mission focused on heat shield inspections. This movie shows the day's highlights.

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STS-120 day 1 highlights

The highlights from shuttle Discovery's launch day are packaged into this movie.

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STS-118: Highlights

The STS-118 crew, including Barbara Morgan, narrates its mission highlights film and answers questions in this post-flight presentation.

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 Mission film

STS-120: Rollout to pad

Space shuttle Discovery rolls out of the Vehicle Assembly Building and travels to launch pad 39A for its STS-120 mission.

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Dawn leaves Earth

NASA's Dawn space probe launches aboard a Delta 2-Heavy rocket from Cape Canaveral to explore two worlds in the asteroid belt.

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Dawn: Launch preview

These briefings preview the launch and science objectives of NASA's Dawn asteroid orbiter.

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Most detailed map of nearby Universe completed

BY DR EMILY BALDWIN

ASTRONOMY NOW

Posted: 08 April, 2009

A team of international astronomers has completed the most detailed survey of galaxies in the nearby Universe, which not only maps their location, but details their direction and speed of motion, too.

By monitoring the way in which galaxies pull on each other’s gravity, astronomers can map the gravitational forces at work in the local Universe. This helps to shed light on the way that matter - both visible and invisible - is distributed throughout the Universe.

“Light can be obscured, but you can’t hide gravity,” says Heath Jones, lead scientist of the Six-Degree Field Galaxy Survey (6dFGS). The team is made up of researchers from Australia, the UK and the USA and the project was carried out with the UK’s 1.2 metre Schmidt Telescope located in eastern Australia and operated by the Anglo-Australian Observatory.

The clustering pattern of about 100,000 nearby galaxies, revealed by the 6dF Galaxy Survey. Each galaxy is shown as a dot. The Milky Way Galaxy is at the centre of the pattern. Image: Dr Chris Fluke, Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology.

“The whole point of this survey is one: measuring redshifts to measure the geography of the local Universe in the Southern Hemisphere, and two: to measure the distance to 10,000 galaxies when previously in the Southern Hemisphere there has been data for about 1,000 galaxies,” explains John Lucey of the University of Durham.

The survey has scanned some eighty percent of the southern skies, revealing the locations of clusters and strings of galaxies, as well as over 500 voids. “We knew about a lot of the major structures before, but how you get the filaments linking them together, we didn’t know that at all well.” This irregular layout of matter will help astronomers to measure the “peculiar” velocities of the galaxies.

“When you want to measure the peculiar velocity you have to measure the distances to the galaxies,” Lucey tells Astronomy Now. “The Universe is expanding uniformly but if you have a big lump of matter in the Universe it slows the expansion around the dense regions. Similarly if you have a void, things are moving out of the void. So if you measure those peculiar velocities you can measure where the matter is in the Universe on a very large scale.”

The UK Schmidt Telescope. Image: Shaun Amy.

One particularly interesting point about the Southern Hemisphere, says Lucey, is the phenomenon known as the Great Attractor, a region of space towards which galaxies appear to be accelerating. “One of the key goals of this survey is to measure many more peculiar velocities over the southern hemisphere so we can really definitively say what the Great Attractor is, because there is a lot of debate as to whether it is a local phenomenon that is not that far away, or is due to a more distant object.”

Some people have suggested that the large supercluster Shapley, is the culprit. “By measuring peculiar velocities you can map those sorts of things,” says Lucey, and this is something that will be keeping the team busy for the months and years ahead.

Measuring the peculiar velocities relies on measuring the width of spectral lines in a galaxy. This requires the high-resolution spectrograph purpose-built for the 6dFGS survey, which allows 150 spectra to be taken simultaneously, and therefore covers the majority of the Southern Hemisphere in a reasonable amount of time. The survey has taken almost a decade since its conception to the delivery of the first results.

Click here to find out more about the 6dF Galaxy Survey.

The Planets
From tiny Mercury to distant Neptune and Pluto, The Planets profiles each of the Solar System's members in depth, featuring the latest imagery from space missions. The tallest mountains, the deepest canyons, the strongest winds, raging atmospheric storms, terrain studded with craters and vast worlds of ice are just some of the sights you'll see on this 100-page tour of the planets.
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Hubble Reborn
Hubble Reborn takes the reader on a journey through the Universe with spectacular full-colour pictures of galaxies, nebulae, planets and stars as seen through Hubble's eyes, along the way telling the dramatic story of the space telescope, including interviews with key scientists and astronauts.
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3D Universe
Witness the most awesome sights of the Universe as they were meant to be seen in this 100-page extravaganza of planets, galaxies and star-scapes, all in 3D!
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