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'Dark flow' transports galaxies across Universe

...scientists have identified a surprising motion in distant galaxy clusters...

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Pinning down the Milky Way's spin

...astronomers studying cepheids have determined the rotation of our Galaxy to be much simpler than we thought...

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Cosmic dust reveals mixed-up Solar System

...new analysis of dust from comet Wild 2 is challenging common views about the evolution of our Solar System...

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STS-120 day 2 highlights

Flight Day 2 of Discovery's mission focused on heat shield inspections. This movie shows the day's highlights.

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STS-120 day 1 highlights

The highlights from shuttle Discovery's launch day are packaged into this movie.

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STS-118: Highlights

The STS-118 crew, including Barbara Morgan, narrates its mission highlights film and answers questions in this post-flight presentation.

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 Mission film

STS-120: Rollout to pad

Space shuttle Discovery rolls out of the Vehicle Assembly Building and travels to launch pad 39A for its STS-120 mission.

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Dawn leaves Earth

NASA's Dawn space probe launches aboard a Delta 2-Heavy rocket from Cape Canaveral to explore two worlds in the asteroid belt.

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Dawn: Launch preview

These briefings preview the launch and science objectives of NASA's Dawn asteroid orbiter.

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Evidence of life could survive in Martian meteorites
BY DR EMILY BALDWIN
ASTRONOMY NOW

Posted: September 24, 2008

An artificial meteorite designed by the European Space Agency and plunged through the Earth’s atmosphere has shown that traces of life, perhaps entombed within a Martian meteorite, could survive the high temperatures and pressures endured in such an ordeal.

The STONE-6 experiment, which comprised two samples of sedimentary rock and one sample of basalt from the Earth, were fixed to the heat shield of a FOTON M3 return capsule. After 12 days in orbit the capsule tumbled through the Earth’s atmosphere at 7.6 kilometres per second, slightly lower than normal meteorite velocities of 12-15 kilometres per second, forcing temperatures of at least 1700 degrees Celsius.

The STONE-6 experiment used a 3.5 billion year old volcanic sand containing microfossils (I), a mudstone (II) and a basalt (III). The sand is of particular relevance to Mars since it formed when environmental conditions on early Mars were similiar to those on Earth, i.e. when life could have existed. The backs of the samples were smeared with microorganisms. The sample holder shown here was fixed to the heat shield of the FOTON-3 re-entry vehicle. Image: Westall et al, 2008 (EPSC Abstract).

Although the basalt sample was lost during re-entry, a sample of 3.5 billion year old volcanic sand containing carbonaceous microfossils and a 370 million year sample of mudstone containing chemical biomarkers both survived. During re-entry about half of the volcanic sand sample rock melted away due to friction with the atmosphere, and formed a half-millimetre thick white coloured fusion crust, in stark contrast to the black fusion crusts that meteorite hunters are more familiar in recognising. Fusion crusts form once the meteorite has slowed down enough in the Earth’s atmosphere such that the melted surface of the rock can cool into a thin glassy coating. Approximately 30 percent of the mudstone also survived, and although the heat of entry resulted in mineralogical changes in both rocks, the microfossils survived at depth in the sample.

"The STONE-6 experiment shows that sedimentary Martian meteorites could reach Earth,” says Dr Frances Westell of the Centre of molecular biophysics in Orleans, France. “The fact that we haven't found any to date could mean that we need to change the way we hunt for meteorites. Most meteorites have been found in Antarctica, where their black fusion crust shows up clearly against the white snow. In this experiment we found that the sedimentary rocks developed a white crust or none at all. That means that we need to expand our search to white or light-coloured rocks."

The rocks also transported living organisms, a type of bacteria called Chroococcidiopsis, on the back of the rocks away from the edge exposed to the atmosphere. Unfortunately the heat of re-entry was so high, that even with a protective two centimetre-thick rock coating, the organisms were carbonised, leaving ‘pompeified’ remnants.

Martian meteorite ALH84001 was found in Antarctica in 1984. The characteristic thin black fusion crust is visible on the top of the meteorite in this image. Controversy surrounds this meteorite as to whether Martian microfossils were contained inside the rock, despite lying on the Earth for 13,000 years before being discovered. Image: NASA.

"The STONE-6 experiment suggests that, if Martian sedimentary meteorites carry traces of past life, these traces could be safely transported to Earth,” says Westell. “However, the results are more problematic when applied to Panspermia, a theory that proposes living cells could be transported between planets. STONE-6 showed at least two centimetres of rock is not sufficient to protect the organisms during entry."

The army of landers and orbiters probing Mars has gathered compelling evidence for water and sediments in the red planet’s early history. Potential traces of Martian life are more likely to be found in sediments that have been formed in water, however, of the 39 known Martian meteorites that have been collected on Earth, all are basaltic rocks, with no sedimentary samples found to date. This could be due to a bias in sampling however; if meteorite hunters widen their search to include white rocks or rocks with no fusion crusts, finding traces of life in Martian meteorites could become a reality.
 

The Planets
From tiny Mercury to distant Neptune and Pluto, The Planets profiles each of the Solar System's members in depth, featuring the latest imagery from space missions. The tallest mountains, the deepest canyons, the strongest winds, raging atmospheric storms, terrain studded with craters and vast worlds of ice are just some of the sights you'll see on this 100-page tour of the planets.
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Hubble Reborn
Hubble Reborn takes the reader on a journey through the Universe with spectacular full-colour pictures of galaxies, nebulae, planets and stars as seen through Hubble's eyes, along the way telling the dramatic story of the space telescope, including interviews with key scientists and astronauts.
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3D Universe
Witness the most awesome sights of the Universe as they were meant to be seen in this 100-page extravaganza of planets, galaxies and star-scapes, all in 3D!
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