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STS-120 day 2 highlights

Flight Day 2 of Discovery's mission focused on heat shield inspections. This movie shows the day's highlights.


STS-120 day 1 highlights

The highlights from shuttle Discovery's launch day are packaged into this movie.


STS-118: Highlights

The STS-118 crew, including Barbara Morgan, narrates its mission highlights film and answers questions in this post-flight presentation.

 Full presentation
 Mission film

STS-120: Rollout to pad

Space shuttle Discovery rolls out of the Vehicle Assembly Building and travels to launch pad 39A for its STS-120 mission.


Dawn leaves Earth

NASA's Dawn space probe launches aboard a Delta 2-Heavy rocket from Cape Canaveral to explore two worlds in the asteroid belt.

 Full coverage

Dawn: Launch preview

These briefings preview the launch and science objectives of NASA's Dawn asteroid orbiter.

 Launch | Science

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Cassini tastes organic material at Enceladus

Posted: March 27, 2008

During its closest and most daring encounter with Saturn’s moon Enceladus, NASA’s Cassini spacecraft sampled an organic brew erupting from the surface in geyser-like fashion that resembles the composition of a comet.

Cassini’s dive through the watery plumes spewing from the so-called “tiger stripe” fissures took it between 50 and 190 kilometres from the surface, giving an unprecedented view of Enceladus’ icy terrain and a chance to sample directly the composition of the plumes. Cassini’s instruments measured an extremely high density of volatile gases, water vapour, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, as well as organic materials, some 20 times denser than expected.

"A completely unexpected surprise is that the chemistry of Enceladus, what's coming out from inside, resembles that of a comet," says Hunter Waite, principal investigator for the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer instrument. "To have primordial material coming out from inside a Saturn moon raises many questions on the formation of the Saturn system."

"Enceladus is by no means a comet,” adds Waite. “Comets have tails and orbit the sun, and Enceladus' activity is powered by internal heat while comet activity is powered by sunlight. Enceladus' brew is like carbonated water with an essence of natural gas.”

Heat radiating from the entire length of 150 kilometre long fractures is shown in this heat map of the active south polar region of Enceladus. The yellow stars mark the source locations of the geysers, and correlate to the hottest parts of the fractures. Image: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute.

New heat maps of the surface show higher temperatures than previously recorded in the south polar region. Hot tracks running the length of the giant tiger stripe fissures reach a balmy -93 degrees Celsius, compared with a background temperature of around -165 degrees Celsius measured at other nearby locations. The warmest parts of the fractures mark the points from which the geysers emanate, and implies that temperatures inside the moon may be even hotter, perhaps warm enough to allow water to be liquid.

"These spectacular new data will really help us understand what powers the geysers,” says John Spencer, Cassini scientist on the Composite Infrared Spectrometer team. “The surprisingly high temperatures make it more likely that there's liquid water not far below the surface."

The new results are allowing scientists to build up a comprehensive picture of the enigmatic satellite, and now that some of the main ingredients for life have been identified - organics, an energy source, and the potential for a reservoir of water below the icy shell - the astrobiological potential of Enceladus is looking more promising with every Cassini flyby.



The Planets
From tiny Mercury to distant Neptune and Pluto, The Planets profiles each of the Solar System's members in depth, featuring the latest imagery from space missions. The tallest mountains, the deepest canyons, the strongest winds, raging atmospheric storms, terrain studded with craters and vast worlds of ice are just some of the sights you'll see on this 100-page tour of the planets.

Hubble Reborn
Hubble Reborn takes the reader on a journey through the Universe with spectacular full-colour pictures of galaxies, nebulae, planets and stars as seen through Hubble's eyes, along the way telling the dramatic story of the space telescope, including interviews with key scientists and astronauts.

3D Universe
Witness the most awesome sights of the Universe as they were meant to be seen in this 100-page extravaganza of planets, galaxies and star-scapes, all in 3D!


© 2014 Pole Star Publications Ltd.